Dr. Bart Nolet


Contact information

T: +31 317 473 448


  • Foraging ecology
  • Plant-herbivore interactions
  • Bird migration
  • Movement ecology

Visiting address

Droevendaalsesteeg 10
6708 PB Wageningen
T +31-317-473400
The Netherlands

Postal address

P.O. Box 50
6700 AB Wageningen
The Netherlands



  • since 2012: group leader Foraging and Movement Ecology Group
  • since 2000 : senior researcher (tenure), Netherlands Institute of Ecology
  • 2008 : also senior researcher (parttime) at Alterra
  • 2000 : associated graduate faculty, John Fryxell's lab, University of Guelph (Canada)
  • 1998-99 : researcher, Netherlands Institute of Ecology
  • 1995-97 : postdoc, Netherlands Institute of Ecology
  • 1988-94 : junior researcher, Institute for Forestry and Nature Research (IBN-DLO)


  • 1994 : PhD University of Groningen (with Rudi Drent)
  • 1988 : MSc University of Groningen (cum laude)
  • 1987/8 : Pat Butler's Lab, University of Birmingham (UK)
  • 1986 : Jan Veen's Group, University of Groningen
  • 1984/5 : Hans Kruuk's Lab, Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Banchory (UK)
  • 1983 : BSc University of Groningen
  • 1980 : VWO, Canisius College, Nijmegen (cum laude)



I try to understand and predict patterns at the population level (i.e., animal distribution and abundance) from processes acting at the individual level. Within an optimality framework, I study decisions of where and when to move: how animals (should) explore their surroundings and exploit their resources. The scale of movement varies from 10^0-10^7 body lengths. In the course of time, my main study system has changed from otters foraging on bottom-dwelling fish, beavers foraging on willows, swans foraging on pondweeds to, more recently, geese foraging on (sea)grass. Currently the focus is on arctic-breeding waterbirds, which migrate through and to the Netherlands in numbers of international importance (Bewick’s Swan, Brent Goose, Pink-footed Goose, White-fronted Goose). How will these birds respond to climatic changes in the Arctic and land-use changes in the temperate region? The approach taken is a combination of field, experimental and modelling work.


I have written >100 publications, including >70 papers in international scientific journals

(see Researcher-ID and Google Scholar Citations).



NERN Best paper award 2014 2nd prize (De Jager et al. 2014 Proc. R. Soc. B)

NERN Best paper award 2012 1st prize (De Jager et al. 2011 Science)

NERN Best paper award 2011 2nd prize (Kurvers et al. 2010 Ecol. Lett.)



I have been referee for c. 60 different journals:

Acta Oecologica - Acta Theriologica - Ambio - American Midland Naturalist - American Naturalist - Animal Behaviour - Animal Conservation - Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics - Aquatic Botany - Aquatic Conservation - Aquatic Ecology - Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology - Ardea - AukBaltic Forestry - Basic and Applied Ecology - Behavioral Ecology - Biological Conservation - Biology Letters - Canadian Journal of Zoology - Chemospere - Condor - Current Zoology - Ecological Modelling - Ecological Monographs - Ecology - Ecology Letters - Ecoscience - Ecosphere - Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science - Ethology - Evolutionary Ecology - Freshwater Biology - Global Change Biology - Hydrobiologia Ibis - Integrative and Comparative Biology - Interface Focus - Israel Journal of Ecology and Evolution - Journal of Animal Ecology - Journal of Applied Ecology - Journal of Avian Biology - Journal of Environmental Management - Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology - Journal of Zoology - Lutra - Marine Ecology Progress Series - Netherlands Journal of Zoology - Oecologia - Oikos - Physiological & Biochemical Zoology - PNAS - PLoS ONE - Polar Biology - Regulated Rivers: Research and Management - Waterbirds - Wildfowl - Wildlife Biology - Wilson Bulletin


Host-pathogen interaction: the effects of avian influenza viruses on free-living mallards

Funded by NWO (to Marcel Klaassen)

PhD Jacintha van Dijk


Adaptive management of migratory populations

Funded by Research Council of Norway (to Ingunn Tombre)

PhD Magda Chudzinska and PhD Caroline Ernberg Simonsen


Workpackage Brent goose (Metawad-I)

Funded by Waddenfonds (to Henk v/d Jeugd)

Postdoc Adriaan Dokter

see Tracking of brent geese


Seed dispersal by mallards

Funded by NWO (to Merel Soons)

PhD Erik Kleyheeg


E-Track: enhanced tracking of animal movement and behaviour

Funded by European Commission (to Lucas Noldus)

Postdoc Andrea Kölzsch





Towards adaptive management of white-fronted geese wintering in the Netherlands

Funded by Faunafonds

(to consortium with Hans de Kroon, Bruno Ens & Arie van Noordwijk)

Postdoc Silke Bauer

see Tracking of white-fronted geese

Picture Hugh Jansman


Carry-over effects in a long-distance migratory bird

Funded by Schure-Beijerinck-Popping Fonds 


Universal laws of animal movement 

Funded by KNAW (Strategic Fund)

postdoc Andrea Kölzsch & postdoc Geerten Hengeveld

see Goose migration track visualisation


BrentArctic: Mechanisms of population regulation

Funded by NWO and RFBR



Estonia: a crucial link in a chain of stopover sites

Funded by Schure-Beijerinck-Popping Fonds



Castor: herbivore tolerance or defense in willows cut by beavers

Funded by Schure-Beijerinck-Popping Fonds  



Carrying capacity: when are spatial and behavioural models needed?

Funded by NWO-ALW - PhD Abel Gyimesi

see PhD Thesis


Herbivore avoidance and tolerance in aquatic plants

Funded by KNAW - PhD Bert Hidding

see PhD Thesis


The spatial scale of foraging decisions in heterogeneous continuous environments

Funded by KNAW - PhD Raymond Klaassen

see PhD Thesis



Selected publications

Reprints or PDFs can be requested at or through the KNAW Repository

Nuijten, R.J.M., Kölzsch, A., van Gils, J.A., Hoye, B.J., Oosterbeek, K., de Vries, P.P., Klaassen, M. & Nolet, B.A. (2013) The exception to the rule: retreating ice front makes Bewick’s swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii migrate slower in spring than in autumn. Journal of Avian Biology (in press)

van Dijk, J.G.B., Hoye, B.J., Verhagen, J.H., Nolet, B.A., Fouchier, R.A.M. & Klaassen, M. (2013) Juveniles and migrants as drivers for seasonal epizootics of avian influenza virus. Journal of Animal Ecology

Nolet, B.A. & Gyimesi, A. (2013) Underuse of stopover site by migratory swans. Journal of Ornithology 154: 695–703

Nolet, B.A., Bauer, S., Feige, N., Kokorev, Y.I., Popov, I.Yu. & Ebbinge, B.S. (2013) Faltering lemming cycles reduce productivity and populaton size of a migratory Arctic goose species. Journal of Animal Ecology 82: 804-813

Kurvers, R.H.J.M., Nolet, B.A., Prins, H.H.T., Ydenberg, R.C. & van Oers, K. (2012) Boldness affects foraging decisions in barnacle geese: an experimental approach. Behavioral Ecology 23: 1155-1161

Gyimesi, A., Franken, M.S., Feige, N. & Nolet, B.A. (2012) Human disturbance of Bewick’s Swans is reflected in giving-up net energy intake rate, but not in giving-up food density. Ibis 154: 781-790

Gyimesi, A., van Lith, B. & Nolet, B.A. (2012) Commensal foraging with Bewick's Swans Cygnus bewickii doubles instantaneous intake rate of Common Pochards Aythya ferina. Ardea 100: 55-62 PDF

Klaassen, M., Hoye, B.J., Nolet, B.A. & Buttemer, W.A. (2012) Ecophysiology of avian migration in the face of current global hazards. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 367:1719-1732

De Jager, M., Weissing, F.J., Herman, P.M.J., Nolet, B.A. & van de Koppel, J. (2012) Response to comment on "Lévy walks evolve through interaction between movement and environmental complexity". Science 335: 918

Hoye, B. J., Hahn, S., Nolet, B.A. & Klaassen, M. (2012) Habitat use throughout migration: linking individual consistency, prior breeding success and future breeding potential. Journal of Animal Ecology 81: 657-666

Hidding, B., Klaassen, M., de Boer, T., de Vries, P.P. & Nolet, B.A. (2012) Aquatic plant shows flexible avoidance by escape from tuber predation by swans. Basic and Applied Ecology 13: 50-58

Gyimesi, A., Varghese, S., De Leeuw, J. & Nolet, B.A. (2012) Net energy intake rate as a common currency to explain swan spatial distribution in a shallow lake. Wetlands 32: 119-127

Van Dijk, J.G.B., Duijns, S., Gyimesi. A., de Boer, W.F. & Nolet, B.A. (2012) Mallards feed longer to maintain intake rate under competition on a natural food distribution. Ethology 118: 169-177

Van Wijk, R.E., Kölzsch, A., Kruckenberg, H., Ebbinge, B.S., Müskens, G.J.D.M. & Nolet, B.A. (2012) Individually tracked geese follow peaks of tgemperature acceleration during spring migration. Oikos 121: 655-664 PDF

Baveco, J.M., Kuipers, H. & Nolet, B.A. (2011) A large-scale multi-species spatial depletion model for overwintering waterfowl. Ecological Modelling 222: 3773-3784

De Jager, M., Weissing, F.J., Herman, P.M.J., Nolet, B.A. & van de Koppel, J. (2011) Lévy walks evolve through interaction between movement and environmental complexity. Science 332: 1551-1553

Hedenström, A., Bowlin, M.S., Nathan, R., Nolet, B.A. & Wikelski, M. (2011) Mechanistic principles of locomotion performance in migrating animals. In: Milner-Gulland, E.J., Fryxell, J.M. & Sinclair, A.R.E. (eds) Animal Migration: A Synthesis. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 35-51.

Bauer, S., Nolet, B.A., Giske, J., Chapman, J.W., Åkesson, S., Hedenström, A. & Fryxell, J.M. (2011) Cues and decision rules in animal migration. In: Milner-Gulland, E.J., Fryxell, J.M. & Sinclair, A.R.E. (eds) Animal Migration: A Synthesis. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 68-87.

Gyimesi, A., de Vries, P.P., de Boer, T. & Nolet, B.A. (2011) Reduced tuber banks of fennel pondweed due to summer grazing of waterfowl. Aquatic Botany 94: 24-28

Gyimesi, A., Stillmann, R.A. & Nolet, B.A. (2010) Cryptic interference competition in swans foraging on cryptic prey. Animal Behaviour 80: 791-797

Gyimesi, A., van Rooij, E.P. & Nolet, B.A. (2010) Nonlinear effects of food aggregation on interference competition in mallards. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 64: 1897-1904

Bakker, E.S., van Donk, E., Declerck, S.A.J., Helmsing, N.R., Hidding, B. & Nolet, B.A. (2010) Effect of macrophyte community composition and nutrient enrichment on plant biomass and algal blooms. Basic and Applied Ecology 11: 432-439

Kurvers, R.H.J.M., van Oers, K., Nolet, B.A., Jonker, R.M., van Wieren, S.E., Prins, H.H.T. & Ydenberg, R.C. (2010) Personality predicts the use of social information. Ecology Letters 13: 829-837

Hidding, B., Bakker, E.S., Keuper, F., de Boer, T., de Vries, P.P. & Nolet, B.A. (2010) Differences in tolerance of pondweeds and charophytes to vertebrate herbivores in a shallow Baltic estuary. Aquatic Botany 93: 123-128

Hidding, B., Brederveld, R.J. & Nolet, B.A. (2010) How a bottom-dweller beats the canopy: inhibition of an aquatic weed (Potamogeton pectinatus) by macroalgae (Chara spp.). Freshwater Biology 55: 1758-1768

Klaassen, M., Hangelbroek, H.H., de Boer, T. & Nolet, B.A. (2010) Insights from the eco-physiological book of records: Bewick’s swans outperform the canonical intake-maximizing vertebrate. Oikos 119: 1156-1160 PDF

Hidding, B., Nolet, B.A., de Boer, T., de Vries, P.P. & Klaassen, M. (2010) Above- and below-ground vertebrate herbivory may each favour a different subordinate species in an aquatic plant community. Oecologia 162: 199-208

Kurvers, R.H.J.M., Prins, H.H.T., van Wieren, S.E., van Oers, K., Nolet, B.A. & Ydenberg, R.C. (2010) The efect of personality on social foraging: shy barnacle geese scrounge more. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London B 277: 601-608

Hidding, B., Nolet, B.A., de Boer, T., de Vries, P.P. & Klaassen, M. (2009) Compensatory growth in an aquatic plant mediates exploitative competition between seasonally tied herbivores. Ecology 90: 1891-1899. PDF

Hidding, B., Nolet, B.A., Rienks, F. (2009) Seizoenstiming bepalend voor concurrentie Kleine zwanen en Knobbelzwanen. De Levende Natuur 110: 361-363 PDF

Duriez, O., Bauer, S. Destin, A., Madsen, J., Nolet, B.A., Stillman, R.A. & Klaassen, M. (2009) What decision rules might pink-footed geese use to depart on migration? An individual-based model. Behavioral Ecology 20: 560-569

Nolet, B.A. & Klaassen, M. (2009) Retrodicting patch use by foraging swans in a heterogeneous environment using a set of functional responses. Oikos 118: 431-439 PDF

Hidding, B., Nolet, B.A., van Eerden, M.R., Guillemain, M. & Klaassen, M. (2009) Burial depth distribution of fennel pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) in relation to foraging by Bewick's swans. Aquatic Botany 90: 321-327

Klaassen, R.H.G. & Nolet, B.A. (2008) Persistence of spatial variance and spatial pattern in the abundance of a submerged plant. Ecology 89: 2973-2979 PDF

Klaassen, M. & Nolet, B.A. (2008) Stoichiometry of endothermy: shifting the quest from nitrogen to carbon. Ecology Letters 11: 785-792

Nolet, B.A., De Boer, T. & De Vries, P.P. (2007) Habitat quality estimated from head-dipping time in trampling swans. Israel Journal of Ecology & Evolution 53: 317-328

Klaassen, M. & Nolet, B.A. (2007) The role of herbivorous water birds in aquatic systems through interactions with aquatic macrophytes, with special reference to the Bewick’s Swan – Fennel Pondweed system. Hydrobiologia 584: 205-213

Klaassen, R.H.G., Nolet, B.A. & Van Leeuwen, C.H.A. (2007) Prior knowledge about spatial pattern affects patch assessment rather than movement between patches in tactile-feeding mallard. Journal of Animal Ecology 76: 20-29

Nolet, B.A. (2006) Speed of spring migration of Tundra Swans Cygnus columbianus in accordance with income or capital breeding strategy? Ardea 94: 579-591 PDF

Klaassen, R.H.G., Nolet, B.A. & Bankert, D. (2006) The influence of social interactions on the foraging path of Bewick's swans. Ardea 94: 477-484 PDF

Veraart, A.J., Nolet, B.A., Rosell, F. & de Vries, P.P. (2006) Simulated winter browsing may lead to induced susceptibility of willows to beavers in spring. Canadian Journal of Zoology 84:1733-1742

Klaassen, R.H.G., Nolet, B.A., van Gils, J.A., Bauer, S. (2006) Optimal movement between patches under incomplete information about the spatial distribution of food items. Theoretical Population Biology 70: 452-463

Nolet, B.A., Gyimesi, A. & Klaassen, R.H.G. (2006) Prediction of bird-day carrying capacity on a staging site: a test of depletion models. Journal of Animal Ecology 75: 1285-1292

Klaassen, R.H.G., Nolet, B.A. & Bankert, D. (2006) Movement of foraging Tundra Swans explained by spatial pattern in cryptic food densities. Ecology 87: 2244-2254 PDF

Nolet, B.A. & Klaassen, M. (2006) Time and energy constraints: reply to comments by Jeschke et al. Oikos 114: 555 PDF

Nolet, B.A., Fuld, V.N. & Van Rijswijk, M.E.C. (2006) Foraging costs and accessibility as determinants of giving-up densities in a swan-pondweed system. Oikos 112: 353-362 PDF

Nolet, B.A., Klaassen, R.H.G. & Mooij, W.M. (2006) The use of a flexible patch leaving rule under exploitative competition: a field test with swans. Oikos 112: 342-352 PDF

Klaassen, R.H.G., Nolet, B.A. & de Fouw, J. (2006) Intake rate at differently scaled heterogeneous food distributions explained by the ability of tactile-foraging mallard to concentrate foraging effort within profitable areas. Oikos 112: 322-331 PDF

Nolet, B.A., Spitzen, A., Van Leijsen, J.P.A. & Dijkstra, V.A.A. (2006) Bevers in de Biesbosch: griendwerkers van de toekomst? Landschap 23: 171-180 PDF

Nolet, B. & Heitkönig, I. (2006) Waarom was de Biesbosch geen beverparadijs? Zoogdier 17: 3-6

Nolet, B.A., Broftová, L., Heitkönig, I., Vorel, A. & Kostkan, V. (2005) Slow growth of translocated beaver population partly due to a climatic shift in food quality. Oikos 111: 632-640 PDF

Nolet, B.A. & Klaassen, M. (2005) Time and energy constraints in demanding phases of the annual cycle: an example of time limitation in refuelling migratory swans. Oikos 111: 302-310 PDF

Mooij, W.M., Hülsmann, S., De Senerpont Domis, L.N., Nolet, B.A., Bodelier, P.L.E., Boers, P.C.M., Dionisio Pires, L.M., Gons, H.J., Ibelings, B.W., Noordhuis, R., Portielje, R., Wolfstein, K. & Lammens, E.H.R.R. (2005) The impact of climate change on lakes in the Netherlands: a review. Aquatic Ecology 39: 381-400

Campbell, R.D., Rosell, F., Nolet, B.A. & Dijkstra, V.A.A. (2005) Territory and group sizes in Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber): echoes of settlement and reproduction? Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 58: 597-607

Charalambidou, I., Santamaría, L., Jansen, C. & Nolet, B.A. (2005) Digestive plasticity in Mallard ducks modulates dispersal probabilities of aquatic plants and crustaceans. Functional Ecology 19: 513-519

Nolet, B. (2005) Nature's engineers: The beaver's return to the Netherlands. Seeking Nature's Limits. Ecologists in the field. 259-264. Publisher: KNNV Publishing PDF

Nolet, B.A. (2004) Overcompensation and grazing optimisation in a swan-pondweed system? Freshwater Biology 49: 1391-1399

Klaassen, M., Beekman, J.H., Kontiokorpi, J., Mulder, R.W.J. & Nolet, B.A. (2004) Migrating swans profit from favourable changes in wind conditions at low altitude. Journal of Ornithology 145: 142-151

Beekman, J.H., Nolet, B.A. & Klaassen, M. (2002) Skipping swans: fuelling rates and wind conditions determine differential use of migratory stopover sites of Bewick's Swans Cygnus bewickii. Ardea 90: 437-460 PDF

Nolet, B.A., Bevan, R.M., Klaassen, M., Langevoord, O. & Van der Heijden, Y.G.J.T. (2002) Habitat switching by Bewick’s swans: maximisation of average long-term energy gain? Journal of Animal Ecology 71: 979-993

Nolet, B.A. (2002) Efficiency as a currency in animals attaining a gain below the energetic ceiling. Behavioral Ecology 13: 571-574

Clausen, P., Nolet, B.A., Fox, A.D. & Klaassen, M. (2002) Long-distance endozoochorous dispersal of submerged macrophyte seeds by migratory waterbirds in Northern Europe – a critical review of possibilities and limitations. Acta Oecologica 23: 191-203

Nolet, B.A. & Mooij, W.M. (2002) Search paths of swans foraging on spatially autocorrelated tubers. Journal of Animal Ecology 71: 451-462

Jonzén, N, Nolet, B.A., Santamaría, L. & Svensson, M.G.E. (2002) Seasonal herbivory and mortality compensation in a swan-pondweed system. Ecological Modelling 147: 209-219

Nolet, B.A., Langevoord, O., Bevan, R.M., Engelaar, K.R., Klaassen, M., Mulder, R.J.W. & Van Dijk, S. (2001) Spatial variation in tuber depletion by swans explained by differences in net intake rates. Ecology 82: 1655-1667 PDF

Nolet, B.A., Andreev, V.A., Clausen, P., Poot, M.J.M. & Wessel, E.G.J. (2001) Significance of the White Sea as a stopover for Bewick’s Swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii in spring. Ibis 143: 63-71

Nolet, B.A., Beekman, J.H., Klaassen, M., Langevoord, O. & Santamaria, L. (2000) Waterplanten en Kleine Zwanen Cygnus columbianus bewickii: een wederzijdse afhankelijkheid? Limosa 73: 105-108

Nolet, B.A. & Drent, R.H. (1998) Bewick's Swans refuelling on pondweed tubers in the Dvina Bay (White Sea) during their spring migration: first come, first served. Journal of Avian Biology 29: 574-581

Nolet, B.A. & Rosell, F. (1998) Come back of the beaver Castor fiber: an overview of old and new conservation problems. Biological Conservation 83: 165-173

Nolet, B.A., Broekhuizen, S., Dorrestein, G.M. & Rienks, K.M. (1997) Infectious diseases as main causes of mortality to beavers Castor fiber after translocation to the Netherlands. Journal of Zoology 241: 35-42

Rosell F. & Nolet, B.A. (1997) Factors affecting scent marking behavior in the European beaver. Journal of Chemical Ecology 23: 673-689

Nolet, B.A. & Baveco, J.M. (1996) Development and viability of a translocated beaver Castor fiber population in the Netherlands. Biological Conservation 75: 125-137

Nolet, B.A., Van der Veer, P.J., Evers, E.G.J. & Ottenheim, M.M. (1995) A linear programming model of diet choice of free-living beavers. Netherlands Journal of Zoology 45: 315-337 PDF

Nolet, B.A. (1995) Distribution and number of the beaver Castor fiber in the Netherlands in the period 1988-1994. Lutra 38: 30-40 PDF

Nolet, B.A. & Rosell, F. (1994) Territoriality and time budgets in beavers during sequential settlement. Canadian Journal of Zoology 72: 1227-1237

Nolet, B.A., Hoekstra, A. & Ottenheim, M.M. (1994) Selective foraging on woody species by the beaver Castor fiber, and its impact on a riparian willow forest. Biological Conservation 70: 117-128

Nolet, B.A., Dijkstra, V.A.A. & Heidecke, D. (1994) Cadmium in beavers translocated from the Elbe river to the Rhine/Meuse estuary, and the possible effect on population growth rate. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 27: 154-161

Nolet, B.A. & Kruuk, H. (1994) Hunting yield and daily food intake of a lactating otter (Lutra lutra) in Shetland. Journal of Zoology 233: 326-331

Nolet, B.A., Wansink, D.E.H. & Kruuk, H. (1993) Diving of otters (Lutra lutra) in a marine habitat: use of depths by a single-prey loader. Journal of Animal Ecology 62: 22-32

Nolet, B.A., Butler, P.J., Masman, D. & Woakes, A.J. (1992) Estimation of daily energy expenditure from heart rate and doubly labeled water in exercising geese. Physiological Zoology 65: 1188-1216

Huijser, M.P. & Nolet, B.A. (1991) First observation of a beaver Castor fiber in Belgium since 1848. Lutra 34: 43-44 PDF

Videler, J.J. & Nolet, B.A. (1990) Cost of swimming measured at optimum speed: scale effects, differences between swimming styles, taxonomic groups and submerged and surface swimming. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 97A: 91-99

Bekker, D.L. & Nolet, B.A. (1990) The diet of otters Lutra lutra in the Netherlands in winter and early spring. Lutra 33: 134-144 PDF

Nolet, B.A. & Kruuk, H. (1989) Grooming and resting of otters Lutra lutra in a marine habitat. Journal of Zoology 218: 433-440

Nolet, B.A. & Martens, V. (1989) The decline of the Otter Lutra lutra in the Netherlands. De Levende Natuur 90: 34-37

Kruuk, H., Nolet, B. & French, D. (1988) Fluctuations in numbers and activity of inshore demersal fishes in Shetland. Journal of the marine biological Association of the United Kingdom 68: 601-617

Nolet, B.A. (1988) Breeding success of some coastal birds in a Herring Gull Larus argentatus colony. Limosa 61: 79-84

Nolet, B.A. & Killingley, C.A. (1987) The effects of a change in food availability on group and territory size of a clan of badgers Meles meles (L.,1758).
Lutra 30: 1-8 PDF

Nolet, B.A. (1984) A scheme for the conservation of the otter Lutra lutra and its habitat in The Netherlands. Lutra 27: 42-44.